- Timing: When data can be added to CSRs and certificates
- Data location and format
- Custom attributes (transient CSR data)
- Extension requests (permanent certificate data)
- AWS attributes and extensions population example
When Puppet agent nodes request their certificates, the certificate signing request (CSR) usually contains only their certname and the necessary cryptographic information. Agents can also embed additional data in their CSR, useful for policy-based autosigning and for adding new trusted facts.
Large numbers of nodes are regularly created and destroyed as part of an elastic scaling system.
You are willing to build custom tooling to make certificate autosigning more secure and useful.
If your deployment doesn’t match one of these descriptions, you might not need this feature.
Timing: When data can be added to CSRs and certificates
When Puppet agent starts the process of requesting a catalog, it checks whether it has a valid signed certificate. If it does not, it generates a key pair, crafts a CSR, and submits it to the certificate authority (CA) Puppet master. For detailed information, see agent/master HTTPS traffic.
For practical purposes, a certificate is locked and immutable as soon as it is signed. For data to persist in the certificate, it has to be added to the CSR before the CA signs the certificate.
This means any desired extra data must be present before Puppet agent attempts to request its catalog for the first time.
You should populate any extra data when provisioning the node. If you make an error, see Recovering From Failed Data Embedding below.
Data location and format
Extra data for the CSR is read from the
csr_attributes.yaml file in Puppet's
confdir. The location of this file can be changed with the
csr_attributes configuration setting.
csr_attributes.yamlfile must contain a YAML hash with one or both of the following keys:
For information about how each hash is used and recommended OIDs for each hash, see the sections below.
Custom attributes (transient CSR data)
Custom attributes are pieces of data that are only embedded in the CSR. The CA can use them when deciding whether to sign the certificate, but they are discarded after that and aren’t transferred to the final certificate.
puppet cert list command doesn’t display custom attributes for pending CSRs, and basic autosigning (autosign.conf) doesn’t check them before signing.
If you use policy-based autosigning your policy executable receives the complete CSR in PEM format. The executable can extract and inspect the custom attributes, and use them to decide whether to sign the certificate.
The simplest method is to embed a pre-shared key of some kind in the custom attributes. A policy executable can compare it to a list of known keys and autosign certificates for any pre-authorized nodes.
A more complex use might be to embed an instance-specific ID and write a policy executable that can check it against a list of your recently requested instances on a public cloud, like EC2 or GCE.
If you use Puppet Server 2.5.0 or higher, you can also sign requests using authorization extensions and the
--allow-authorization-extensions flag for
puppet cert sign.
Manually checking for custom attributes in CSRs
You can check for custom attributes by using OpenSSL to dump a CSR in
pem format to text format, by running this command:
openssl req -noout -text -in <name>.pem
In the output, look for the
Attributes section which appears below the
Subject Public Key Info block:
Attributes: challengePassword :342thbjkt82094y0uthhor289jnqthpc2290
Recommended OIDs for attributes
Custom attributes can use any public or site-specific OID, with the exception of the OIDs used for core X.509 functionality. This means you can’t re-use existing OIDs for things like subject alternative names.
One useful OID is the
challengePassword attribute —
1.2.840.113518.104.22.168. This is a rarely-used corner of X.509 that can easily be repurposed to hold a pre-shared key. The benefit of using this instead of an arbitrary OID is that it appears by name when using OpenSSL to dump the CSR to text; OIDs that
openssl req can’t recognize are displayed as numerical strings.
You can also use the Puppet-specific OIDs.
Extension requests (permanent certificate data)
Extension requests are pieces of data that are transferred as extensions to the final certificate, when the CA signs the CSR. They persist as trusted, immutable data, that cannot be altered after the certificate is signed.
They can also be used by the CA when deciding whether or not to sign the certificate.
When signing a certificate, Puppet’s CA tools transfer any extension requests into the final certificate.
You can access certificate extensions in manifests as
Any OIDs in the ppRegCertExt range appear using their short names. By default, any other OIDs appear as plain dotted numbers, but you can use the
custom_trusted_oid_mapping.yaml file to assign short names to any other OIDs you use at your site. If you do, those OIDs will appear in
$trusted as their short names, instead of their full numerical OID.
For more information about
$trusted, see facts and special variables.
puppet cert listcommand does not display custom attributes for any pending CSRs, and basic autosigning (autosign.conf) doesn’t check them before signing. Either use policy-based autosigning or inspect CSRs manually with the
opensslcommand (see below).
puppet cert printcommand does display any extensions in a signed certificate, under the
Puppet’s authorization system (
auth.conf) does not use certificate extensions, but Puppet Server’s authorization system, which is based on
trapperkeeper-authorization, can use extensions in the
ppAuthCertExt OID range, and requires them for requests to write access rules.
If you use policy-based autosigning, your policy executable receives the complete CSR in
pem format. The executable can extract and inspect the extension requests, and use them when deciding whether to sign the certificate.
Manually checking for extensions in CSRs and certificates
You can check for extension requests in a CSR by running the OpenSSL command to dump a CSR in
pem format to text format:
openssl req -noout -text -in <name>.pem
In the output, look for a section called
Requested Extensions, which appears below the
Subject Public Key Info and
Requested Extensions: pp_uuid: .$ED803750-E3C7-44F5-BB08-41A04433FE2E 22.214.171.124.4.1.343126.96.36.199: ..my_ami_image 188.8.131.52.4.1.343184.108.40.206: .$342thbjkt82094y0uthhor289jnqthpc2290
..in the example above) that contain ASN.1 encoding information. Because OpenSSL is unaware of Puppet’s custom extensions OIDs, it’s unable to properly display the values.
Any Puppet-specific OIDs (see below) appear as numeric strings when using OpenSSL.
You can check for extensions in a signed certificate by running
puppet cert print <name>. In the output, look for the
X509v3 extensions section. Any of the Puppet-specific registered OIDs appear as their descriptive names:
X509v3 extensions: Netscape Comment: Puppet Ruby/OpenSSL Internal Certificate X509v3 Subject Key Identifier: 47:BC:D5:14:33:F2:ED:85:B9:52:FD:A2:EA:E4:CC:00:7F:7F:19:7E Puppet Node UUID: ED803750-E3C7-44F5-BB08-41A04433FE2E X509v3 Extended Key Usage: critical TLS Web Server Authentication, TLS Web Client Authentication X509v3 Basic Constraints: critical CA:FALSE Puppet Node Preshared Key: 342thbjkt82094y0uthhor289jnqthpc2290 X509v3 Key Usage: critical Digital Signature, Key Encipherment Puppet Node Image Name: my_ami_image
Recommended OIDs for extensions
Extension request OIDs must be under the
220.127.116.11.4.1.34380.1.3) OID arcs.
Puppet provides several registered OIDs (under
ppRegCertExt) for the most common kinds of extension information, a private OID range (
ppPrivCertExt) for site-specific extension information, and an OID range for safe authorization to Puppet Server (
You can reference them in the
csr_attributes.yamlfile with their short names instead of their numeric IDs.
You can access them in $
trusted[extensions]with their short names instead of their numeric IDs.
When using Puppet tools to print certificate info, they will appear using their descriptive names instead of their numeric IDs.
The private range is available for any information you want to embed into a certificate that isn’t widely used already. It is completely unregulated, and its contents are expected to be different in every Puppet deployment.
You can use the custom_trusted_oid_mapping.yaml file to set short names for any private extension OIDs you use. Note that this only enables the short names in the
Puppet-specific registered IDs
ppRegCertExt OID range contains the following OIDs:
|Numeric ID||Short name||Descriptive name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node UUID|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node instance ID|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node image name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node preshared key|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node cost center name|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node product name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node project name|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node application name|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node service name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node employee name|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node |
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node environment name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node role name|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node software version|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node department name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node cluster name|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node provisioner name|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node region name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node datacenter name|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node zone name|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node network name|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node security policy name|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Puppet node cloud platform name|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node application tier|
|18.104.22.168.4.1.34322.214.171.124||Puppet node hostname|
ppAuthCertExtOID range contains the following OIDs:
|Numeric ID||Short name||Descriptive name|
|126.96.36.199.4.1.343188.8.131.52||Certificate extension authorization|
|184.108.40.206.4.1.343220.127.116.11||Puppet node role name for authorization|
AWS attributes and extensions population example
To populate the
csr_attributes.yaml file when you provision a node, use an automated script such as cloud-init.
For example, when provisioning a new node from the AWS EC2 dashboard, enter the following script into the Configure Instance Details —> Advanced Details section:
#!/bin/sh if [ ! -d /etc/puppetlabs/puppet ]; then mkdir /etc/puppetlabs/puppet fi cat > /etc/puppetlabs/puppet/csr_attributes.yaml << YAML custom_attributes: 1.2.840.113518.104.22.168: mySuperAwesomePassword extension_requests: pp_instance_id: $(curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/instance-id) pp_image_name: $(curl -s http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/ami-id) YAML
Assuming your image has the
erb binary available, this populates the attributes file with the AWS instance ID, image name, and a pre-shared key to use with policy-based autosigning.
Recovering from failed data embedding
When testing this feature for the first time, you might not embed the right information in a CSR, or certificate, and might want to start over for your test nodes. This is not really a problem once your provisioning system is changed to populate the data, but it can easily happen when doing things manually.
To start over, do the following.
Turn off Puppet agent, if it’s running.
Check whether a CSR is present in
$ssldir/certificate_requests/<name>.pem. If it exists, delete it.
Check whether a certificate is present in
$ssldir/certs/<name>.pem. If it exists, delete it.
Check whether a signed certificate exists. Use
puppet cert list --allto see the complete list. If it exists, revoke and delete it with
puppet cert clean <name>.
Check whether a CSR for the node exists in
$ssldir/ca/requests/<name>.pem. If it exists, delete it.
After you’ve done that, you can start over.