Puppet Platform reference manual

NOTE: This page was generated from the Puppet source code on 2017-10-04 17:16:53 -0700

file

Description

Manages files, including their content, ownership, and permissions.

The file type can manage normal files, directories, and symlinks; the type should be specified in the ensure attribute.

File contents can be managed directly with the content attribute, or downloaded from a remote source using the source attribute; the latter can also be used to recursively serve directories (when the recurse attribute is set to true or local). On Windows, note that file contents are managed in binary mode; Puppet never automatically translates line endings.

Autorequires: If Puppet is managing the user or group that owns a file, the file resource will autorequire them. If Puppet is managing any parent directories of a file, the file resource will autorequire them.

Attributes

file { 'resource title':
  path                    => # (namevar) The path to the file to manage.  Must be fully...
  ensure                  => # Whether the file should exist, and if so what...
  backup                  => # Whether (and how) file content should be backed...
  checksum                => # The checksum type to use when determining...
  checksum_value          => # The checksum of the source contents. Only md5...
  content                 => # The desired contents of a file, as a string...
  ctime                   => # A read-only state to check the file ctime. On...
  force                   => # Perform the file operation even if it will...
  group                   => # Which group should own the file.  Argument can...
  ignore                  => # A parameter which omits action on files matching 
  links                   => # How to handle links during file actions.  During 
  mode                    => # The desired permissions mode for the file, in...
  mtime                   => # A read-only state to check the file mtime. On...
  owner                   => # The user to whom the file should belong....
  provider                => # The specific backend to use for this `file...
  purge                   => # Whether unmanaged files should be purged. This...
  recurse                 => # Whether to recursively manage the _contents_ of...
  recurselimit            => # How far Puppet should descend into...
  replace                 => # Whether to replace a file or symlink that...
  selinux_ignore_defaults => # If this is set then Puppet will not ask SELinux...
  selrange                => # What the SELinux range component of the context...
  selrole                 => # What the SELinux role component of the context...
  seltype                 => # What the SELinux type component of the context...
  seluser                 => # What the SELinux user component of the context...
  show_diff               => # Whether to display differences when the file...
  source                  => # A source file, which will be copied into place...
  source_permissions      => # Whether (and how) Puppet should copy owner...
  sourceselect            => # Whether to copy all valid sources, or just the...
  target                  => # The target for creating a link.  Currently...
  type                    => # A read-only state to check the file...
  validate_cmd            => # A command for validating the file's syntax...
  validate_replacement    => # The replacement string in a `validate_cmd` that...
  # ...plus any applicable metaparameters.
}

path

(Namevar: If omitted, this attribute’s value defaults to the resource’s title.)

The path to the file to manage. Must be fully qualified.

On Windows, the path should include the drive letter and should use / as the separator character (rather than \\).

(↑ Back to file attributes)

ensure

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

Whether the file should exist, and if so what kind of file it should be. Possible values are present, absent, file, directory, and link.

  • present accepts any form of file existence, and creates a normal file if the file is missing. (The file will have no content unless the content or source attribute is used.)
  • absent ensures the file doesn’t exist, and deletes it if necessary.
  • file ensures it’s a normal file, and enables use of the content or source attribute.
  • directory ensures it’s a directory, and enables use of the source, recurse, recurselimit, ignore, and purge attributes.
  • link ensures the file is a symlink, and requires that you also set the target attribute. Symlinks are supported on all Posix systems and on Windows Vista / 2008 and higher. On Windows, managing symlinks requires Puppet agent’s user account to have the “Create Symbolic Links” privilege; this can be configured in the “User Rights Assignment” section in the Windows policy editor. By default, Puppet agent runs as the Administrator account, which has this privilege.

Puppet avoids destroying directories unless the force attribute is set to true. This means that if a file is currently a directory, setting ensure to anything but directory or present will cause Puppet to skip managing the resource and log either a notice or an error.

There is one other non-standard value for ensure. If you specify the path to another file as the ensure value, it is equivalent to specifying link and using that path as the target:

# Equivalent resources:

file { '/etc/inetd.conf':
  ensure => '/etc/inet/inetd.conf',
}

file { '/etc/inetd.conf':
  ensure => link,
  target => '/etc/inet/inetd.conf',
}

However, we recommend using link and target explicitly, since this behavior can be harder to read and is deprecated as of Puppet 4.3.0.

Valid values are absent (also called false), file, present, directory, link. Values can match /./.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

backup

Whether (and how) file content should be backed up before being replaced. This attribute works best as a resource default in the site manifest (File { backup => main }), so it can affect all file resources.

  • If set to false, file content won’t be backed up.
  • If set to a string beginning with . (e.g., .puppet-bak), Puppet will use copy the file in the same directory with that value as the extension of the backup. (A value of true is a synonym for .puppet-bak.)
  • If set to any other string, Puppet will try to back up to a filebucket with that title. See the filebucket resource type for more details. (This is the preferred method for backup, since it can be centralized and queried.)

Default value: puppet, which backs up to a filebucket of the same name. (Puppet automatically creates a local filebucket named puppet if one doesn’t already exist.)

Backing up to a local filebucket isn’t particularly useful. If you want to make organized use of backups, you will generally want to use the puppet master server’s filebucket service. This requires declaring a filebucket resource and a resource default for the backup attribute in site.pp:

# /etc/puppetlabs/puppet/manifests/site.pp
filebucket { 'main':
  path   => false,                # This is required for remote filebuckets.
  server => 'puppet.example.com', # Optional; defaults to the configured puppet master.
}

File { backup => main, }

If you are using multiple puppet master servers, you will want to centralize the contents of the filebucket. Either configure your load balancer to direct all filebucket traffic to a single master, or use something like an out-of-band rsync task to synchronize the content on all masters.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

checksum

The checksum type to use when determining whether to replace a file’s contents.

The default checksum type is md5.

Valid values are md5, md5lite, sha256, sha256lite, mtime, ctime, none.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

checksum_value

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

The checksum of the source contents. Only md5 and sha256 are supported when specifying this parameter. If this parameter is set, source_permissions will be assumed to be false, and ownership and permissions will not be read from source.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

content

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

The desired contents of a file, as a string. This attribute is mutually exclusive with source and target.

Newlines and tabs can be specified in double-quoted strings using standard escaped syntax — \n for a newline, and \t for a tab.

With very small files, you can construct content strings directly in the manifest…

define resolve($nameserver1, $nameserver2, $domain, $search) {
    $str = "search ${search}
        domain ${domain}
        nameserver ${nameserver1}
        nameserver ${nameserver2}
        "

    file { '/etc/resolv.conf':
      content => $str,
    }
}

…but for larger files, this attribute is more useful when combined with the template or file function.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

ctime

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

A read-only state to check the file ctime. On most modern *nix-like systems, this is the time of the most recent change to the owner, group, permissions, or content of the file.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

force

Perform the file operation even if it will destroy one or more directories. You must use force in order to:

  • purge subdirectories
  • Replace directories with files or links
  • Remove a directory when ensure => absent

Valid values are true, false, yes, no.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

group

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

Which group should own the file. Argument can be either a group name or a group ID.

On Windows, a user (such as “Administrator”) can be set as a file’s group and a group (such as “Administrators”) can be set as a file’s owner; however, a file’s owner and group shouldn’t be the same. (If the owner is also the group, files with modes like "0640" will cause log churn, as they will always appear out of sync.)

(↑ Back to file attributes)

ignore

A parameter which omits action on files matching specified patterns during recursion. Uses Ruby’s builtin globbing engine, so shell metacharacters are fully supported, e.g. [a-z]*. Matches that would descend into the directory structure are ignored, e.g., */*.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

How to handle links during file actions. During file copying, follow will copy the target file instead of the link and manage will copy the link itself. When not copying, manage will manage the link, and follow will manage the file to which the link points.

Valid values are follow, manage.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

mode

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

The desired permissions mode for the file, in symbolic or numeric notation. This value must be specified as a string; do not use un-quoted numbers to represent file modes.

If the mode is omitted (or explicitly set to undef), Puppet does not enforce permissions on existing files and creates new files with permissions of 0644.

The file type uses traditional Unix permission schemes and translates them to equivalent permissions for systems which represent permissions differently, including Windows. For detailed ACL controls on Windows, you can leave mode unmanaged and use the puppetlabs/acl module.

Numeric modes should use the standard octal notation of <SETUID/SETGID/STICKY><OWNER><GROUP><OTHER> (for example, “0644”).

  • Each of the “owner,” “group,” and “other” digits should be a sum of the permissions for that class of users, where read = 4, write = 2, and execute/search = 1.
  • The setuid/setgid/sticky digit is also a sum, where setuid = 4, setgid = 2, and sticky = 1.
  • The setuid/setgid/sticky digit is optional. If it is absent, Puppet will clear any existing setuid/setgid/sticky permissions. (So to make your intent clear, you should use at least four digits for numeric modes.)
  • When specifying numeric permissions for directories, Puppet sets the search permission wherever the read permission is set.

Symbolic modes should be represented as a string of comma-separated permission clauses, in the form <WHO><OP><PERM>:

  • “Who” should be u (user), g (group), o (other), and/or a (all)
  • “Op” should be = (set exact permissions), + (add select permissions), or - (remove select permissions)
  • “Perm” should be one or more of:
    • r (read)
    • w (write)
    • x (execute/search)
    • t (sticky)
    • s (setuid/setgid)
    • X (execute/search if directory or if any one user can execute)
    • u (user’s current permissions)
    • g (group’s current permissions)
    • o (other’s current permissions)

Thus, mode "0664" could be represented symbolically as either a=r,ug+w or ug=rw,o=r. However, symbolic modes are more expressive than numeric modes: a mode only affects the specified bits, so mode => 'ug+w' will set the user and group write bits, without affecting any other bits.

See the manual page for GNU or BSD chmod for more details on numeric and symbolic modes.

On Windows, permissions are translated as follows:

  • Owner and group names are mapped to Windows SIDs
  • The “other” class of users maps to the “Everyone” SID
  • The read/write/execute permissions map to the FILE_GENERIC_READ, FILE_GENERIC_WRITE, and FILE_GENERIC_EXECUTE access rights; a file’s owner always has the FULL_CONTROL right
  • “Other” users can’t have any permissions a file’s group lacks, and its group can’t have any permissions its owner lacks; that is, “0644” is an acceptable mode, but “0464” is not.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

mtime

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

A read-only state to check the file mtime. On *nix-like systems, this is the time of the most recent change to the content of the file.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

owner

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

The user to whom the file should belong. Argument can be a user name or a user ID.

On Windows, a group (such as “Administrators”) can be set as a file’s owner and a user (such as “Administrator”) can be set as a file’s group; however, a file’s owner and group shouldn’t be the same. (If the owner is also the group, files with modes like "0640" will cause log churn, as they will always appear out of sync.)

(↑ Back to file attributes)

provider

The specific backend to use for this file resource. You will seldom need to specify this — Puppet will usually discover the appropriate provider for your platform.

Available providers are:

(↑ Back to file attributes)

purge

Whether unmanaged files should be purged. This option only makes sense when ensure => directory and recurse => true.

  • When recursively duplicating an entire directory with the source attribute, purge => true will automatically purge any files that are not in the source directory.
  • When managing files in a directory as individual resources, setting purge => true will purge any files that aren’t being specifically managed.

If you have a filebucket configured, the purged files will be uploaded, but if you do not, this will destroy data.

Unless force => true is set, purging will not delete directories, although it will delete the files they contain.

If recurselimit is set and you aren’t using force => true, purging will obey the recursion limit; files in any subdirectories deeper than the limit will be treated as unmanaged and left alone.

Valid values are true, false, yes, no.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

recurse

Whether to recursively manage the contents of a directory. This attribute is only used when ensure => directory is set. The allowed values are:

  • false — The default behavior. The contents of the directory will not be automatically managed.
  • remote — If the source attribute is set, Puppet will automatically manage the contents of the source directory (or directories), ensuring that equivalent files and directories exist on the target system and that their contents match.

    Using remote will disable the purge attribute, but results in faster catalog application than recurse => true.

    The source attribute is mandatory when recurse => remote.

  • true — If the source attribute is set, this behaves similarly to recurse => remote, automatically managing files from the source directory.

    This also enables the purge attribute, which can delete unmanaged files from a directory. See the description of purge for more details.

    The source attribute is not mandatory when using recurse => true, so you can enable purging in directories where all files are managed individually.

By default, setting recurse to remote or true will manage all subdirectories. You can use the recurselimit attribute to limit the recursion depth.

Valid values are true, false, remote.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

recurselimit

How far Puppet should descend into subdirectories, when using ensure => directory and either recurse => true or recurse => remote. The recursion limit affects which files will be copied from the source directory, as well as which files can be purged when purge => true.

Setting recurselimit => 0 is the same as setting recurse => false — Puppet will manage the directory, but all of its contents will be treated as unmanaged.

Setting recurselimit => 1 will manage files and directories that are directly inside the directory, but will not manage the contents of any subdirectories.

Setting recurselimit => 2 will manage the direct contents of the directory, as well as the contents of the first level of subdirectories.

And so on — 3 will manage the contents of the second level of subdirectories, etc.

Values can match /^[0-9]+$/.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

replace

Whether to replace a file or symlink that already exists on the local system but whose content doesn’t match what the source or content attribute specifies. Setting this to false allows file resources to initialize files without overwriting future changes. Note that this only affects content; Puppet will still manage ownership and permissions. Defaults to true.

Valid values are true, false, yes, no.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

selinux_ignore_defaults

If this is set then Puppet will not ask SELinux (via matchpathcon) to supply defaults for the SELinux attributes (seluser, selrole, seltype, and selrange). In general, you should leave this set at its default and only set it to true when you need Puppet to not try to fix SELinux labels automatically.

Valid values are true, false.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

selrange

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

What the SELinux range component of the context of the file should be. Any valid SELinux range component is accepted. For example s0 or SystemHigh. If not specified it defaults to the value returned by matchpathcon for the file, if any exists. Only valid on systems with SELinux support enabled and that have support for MCS (Multi-Category Security).

(↑ Back to file attributes)

selrole

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

What the SELinux role component of the context of the file should be. Any valid SELinux role component is accepted. For example role_r. If not specified it defaults to the value returned by matchpathcon for the file, if any exists. Only valid on systems with SELinux support enabled.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

seltype

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

What the SELinux type component of the context of the file should be. Any valid SELinux type component is accepted. For example tmp_t. If not specified it defaults to the value returned by matchpathcon for the file, if any exists. Only valid on systems with SELinux support enabled.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

seluser

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

What the SELinux user component of the context of the file should be. Any valid SELinux user component is accepted. For example user_u. If not specified it defaults to the value returned by matchpathcon for the file, if any exists. Only valid on systems with SELinux support enabled.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

show_diff

Whether to display differences when the file changes, defaulting to true. This parameter is useful for files that may contain passwords or other secret data, which might otherwise be included in Puppet reports or other insecure outputs. If the global show_diff setting is false, then no diffs will be shown even if this parameter is true.

Valid values are true, false, yes, no.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

source

A source file, which will be copied into place on the local system. This attribute is mutually exclusive with content and target. Allowed values are:

  • puppet: URIs, which point to files in modules or Puppet file server mount points.
  • Fully qualified paths to locally available files (including files on NFS shares or Windows mapped drives).
  • file: URIs, which behave the same as local file paths.
  • http: URIs, which point to files served by common web servers

The normal form of a puppet: URI is:

puppet:///modules/<MODULE NAME>/<FILE PATH>

This will fetch a file from a module on the Puppet master (or from a local module when using Puppet apply). Given a modulepath of /etc/puppetlabs/code/modules, the example above would resolve to /etc/puppetlabs/code/modules/<MODULE NAME>/files/<FILE PATH>.

Unlike content, the source attribute can be used to recursively copy directories if the recurse attribute is set to true or remote. If a source directory contains symlinks, use the links attribute to specify whether to recreate links or follow them.

HTTP URIs cannot be used to recursively synchronize whole directory trees. It is also not possible to use source_permissions values other than ignore. That’s because HTTP servers do not transfer any metadata that translates to ownership or permission details.

Multiple source values can be specified as an array, and Puppet will use the first source that exists. This can be used to serve different files to different system types:

file { '/etc/nfs.conf':
  source => [
    "puppet:///modules/nfs/conf.${host}",
    "puppet:///modules/nfs/conf.${operatingsystem}",
    'puppet:///modules/nfs/conf'
  ]
}

Alternately, when serving directories recursively, multiple sources can be combined by setting the sourceselect attribute to all.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

source_permissions

Whether (and how) Puppet should copy owner, group, and mode permissions from the source to file resources when the permissions are not explicitly specified. (In all cases, explicit permissions will take precedence.) Valid values are use, use_when_creating, and ignore:

  • ignore (the default) will never apply the owner, group, or mode from the source when managing a file. When creating new files without explicit permissions, the permissions they receive will depend on platform-specific behavior. On POSIX, Puppet will use the umask of the user it is running as. On Windows, Puppet will use the default DACL associated with the user it is running as.
  • use will cause Puppet to apply the owner, group, and mode from the source to any files it is managing.
  • use_when_creating will only apply the owner, group, and mode from the source when creating a file; existing files will not have their permissions overwritten.

Valid values are use, use_when_creating, ignore.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

sourceselect

Whether to copy all valid sources, or just the first one. This parameter only affects recursive directory copies; by default, the first valid source is the only one used, but if this parameter is set to all, then all valid sources will have all of their contents copied to the local system. If a given file exists in more than one source, the version from the earliest source in the list will be used.

Valid values are first, all.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

target

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

The target for creating a link. Currently, symlinks are the only type supported. This attribute is mutually exclusive with source and content.

Symlink targets can be relative, as well as absolute:

# (Useful on Solaris)
file { '/etc/inetd.conf':
  ensure => link,
  target => 'inet/inetd.conf',
}

Directories of symlinks can be served recursively by instead using the source attribute, setting ensure to directory, and setting the links attribute to manage.

Valid values are notlink. Values can match /./.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

type

(Property: This attribute represents concrete state on the target system.)

A read-only state to check the file type.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

validate_cmd

A command for validating the file’s syntax before replacing it. If Puppet would need to rewrite a file due to new source or content, it will check the new content’s validity first. If validation fails, the file resource will fail.

This command must have a fully qualified path, and should contain a percent (%) token where it would expect an input file. It must exit 0 if the syntax is correct, and non-zero otherwise. The command will be run on the target system while applying the catalog, not on the puppet master.

Example:

file { '/etc/apache2/apache2.conf':
  content      => 'example',
  validate_cmd => '/usr/sbin/apache2 -t -f %',
}

This would replace apache2.conf only if the test returned true.

Note that if a validation command requires a % as part of its text, you can specify a different placeholder token with the validate_replacement attribute.

(↑ Back to file attributes)

validate_replacement

The replacement string in a validate_cmd that will be replaced with an input file name. Defaults to: %

(↑ Back to file attributes)

Providers

posix

Uses POSIX functionality to manage file ownership and permissions.

  • Supported features: manages_symlinks.

windows

Uses Microsoft Windows functionality to manage file ownership and permissions.

  • Supported features: manages_symlinks.

Provider Features

Available features:

  • manages_symlinks — The provider can manage symbolic links.

Provider support:

Provider manages symlinks
posix X
windows X

NOTE: This page was generated from the Puppet source code on 2017-10-04 17:16:53 -0700

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