High availability

High availability configuration creates a replica of your master.

You may have only one provisioned replica at a time.

Note: We support high availability only in monolithic installations with or without compilers.

There are two main advantages to enabling high availability:

  • If your master fails, the replica takes over, continuing to perform critical operations.

  • If your master can’t be repaired, you can promote the replica to master. Promotion establishes the replica as the new, permanent master.

High availability architecture

The replica is not an exact copy of the master. Rather, the replica duplicates specific infrastructure components and services. Hiera data and other custom configurations are not replicated.

Replication may be read-write, meaning that data can be written to the service or component on either the master or the replica, and the data is synced to both nodes. Alternatively, replication may be read-only, where data is written only to the master and synced to the replica. Some components and services, like Puppet Server and the console service UI, are not replicated because they contain no native data.

Some components and services are activated immediately when you enable a replica; others aren't active until you promote a replica. After you provision and enable a replica, it serves as a compiler, redirecting PuppetDB and cert requests to the master.

Component or service Type of replication Activated when replica is...
Puppet Server none enabled
File sync client read-only enabled
PuppetDB read-write enabled
Certificate authority read-only promoted
RBAC service read-only enabled
Node classifier service read-only enabled
Activity service read-only enabled
Orchestration service read-only promoted
Console service UI none promoted
Important: When you enable high availability, you must use Hiera or pe.conf only — not the console — to specify configuration parameters. Using pe.conf or Hiera ensures that configuration is applied to both your master and replica.

In a monolithic installation, when a Puppet run fails over, agents communicate with the replica instead of the master. In a monolithic installation with compilers, agents communicate with load balancers or compilers, which communicate with the master or replica.

What happens during failovers

Failover occurs when the replica takes over services usually performed by the master.

Failover is automatic — you don’t have to take action to activate the replica. With high availability enabled, Puppet runs are directed first to the master. If the master is either fully or partially unreachable, runs are directed to the replica.

In partial failovers, Puppet runs can use the server, node classifier, or PuppetDB on the replica if those services aren’t reachable on the master. For example, if the master’s node classifier fails, but its Puppet Server is still running, agent runs use the Puppet Server on the master but fail over to the replica’s node classifier.

What works during failovers:

  • Scheduled Puppet runs
  • Catalog compilation
  • Viewing classification data using the node classifier API
  • Reporting and queries based on PuppetDB data

What doesn’t work during failovers:

  • Deploying new Puppet code
  • Editing node classifier data
  • Using the console
  • Certificate functionality, including provisioning new agents, revoking certificates, or running the puppet certificate command
  • Most CLI tools
  • Application orchestration

System and software requirements

Your Puppet infrastructure must meet specific requirements in order to configure high availability.

Component Requirement
Operating system All supported PE master platforms.
  • You must use Code Manager so that code is deployed to both the master and the replica after you enable a replica.
  • You must use the default PE node classifier so that high availability classification can be applied to nodes.

  • Orchestrator must be enabled so that agents are updated when you provision or enable a replica. Orchestrator is enabled by default.
  • Must be an agent node that doesn’t have a specific function already. You can decommission a node, uninstall all puppet packages, and re-commission the node to be a replica. However, a compiler cannot perform two functions, for example, as a compiler and a replica.
  • Must have the same hardware specifications and capabilities as your master node.
Firewall Both the master and the replica must comply with these port requirements:
  • Firewall configuration for monolithic installations with compilers. These requirements apply whether your HA environment uses a single master or compilers.
  • Port 5432 must be open to facilitate database replication by console services.
Node names
  • You must use resolvable domain names when specifying node names for the master and replica.
RBAC tokens
  • You must have an admin RBAC token when running puppet infrastructure commands, including provisionenable, and forget. You can generate a token using the puppet-access command.
    Note: You don’t need an RBAC token to promote a replica.

Classification changes in high availability installations

When you provision and enable a replica, the system makes a number of classification changes in order to manage high availability without affecting existing configuration.

These preconfigured node groups are added in high availability installations:

Node group Matching nodes Inherits from
PE HA Master master PE Master node group
PE HA Replica master replicas PE Infrastructure node group
These parameters are used to configure high availability installations:
Parameter Purpose Node group Classes Notes
agent-server-urls Specifies the list of servers that agents contact, in order.

PE Agent

PE Infrastructure Agent

puppet_enterprise:: profile::agent
In monolithic installations with compilers, agents must be configured to communicate with the load balancers or compilers.
Important: Setting agents to communicate directly with the replica in order to use the replica as a compiler is not a supported configuration.
replication_mode Sets replication type and direction on masters and replicas.

PE Master (none)

HA Master (source)

HA Replica (replica)

puppet_enterprise:: profile::master puppet_enterprise:: profile::database puppet_enterprise:: profile::console System parameter. Don’t modify.
ha_enabled_replicas Tracks replica nodes that are failover ready. PE Infrastructure puppet_enterprise

System parameter. Don't modify.

Updated when you enable a replica.

pcp_broker_list Specifies the list of Puppet Communications Protocol brokers that Puppet Execution Protocol agents contact, in order.

PE Agent

PE Infrastructure Agent

puppet_enterprise:: profile::agent

Load balancer timeout in high availability installations

High availability configuration uses timeouts to determine when to fail over to the replica. If the load balancer timeout is shorter than the server and agent timeout, connections from agents might be terminated during failover.

To avoid timeouts, set the timeout option for load balancers to four minutes or longer. This duration allows compilers enough time for required queries to PuppetDB and the node classifier service. You can set the load balancer timeout option using parameters in the haproxy or f5 modules.